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PITIGLIANO

Pitigliano is an Italian town of 3,867 inhabitants [1] of the province of Grosseto in Tuscany.

The picturesque old town is known as the little Jerusalem [3], for the historical presence of a Jewish community it has always been well integrated into the social context that here had its own synagogue.
The municipality of Pitigliano extends in the western part of the Tufa. Bordered to the north by the town of Sorano, in the south-east with the municipalities of Lazio Farnese, Ischia di Castro, Latera and Valentano from which is bordered from the north end of the Lamone, on the west by the town of Manchester.
Arriving in Pitigliano from the sea, climbing the regional road Maremmana 74, they see the typical houses that protrude from a large outcrop of tufa, absolutely sheer. The cliff of Pitigliano is surrounded on three sides by ravines, full of caves dug into the tuff; in the valley they flow the rivers Lens, Meleta and Prochio.
The municipal area stands on a straight hill ranging between 300 and 663 meters above sea level Poggio Evangelista, which marks the border with Lazio at the east end; the area of ​​Paduletto Pantanello was subjected to reclamation in the Lorraine period [4]. Pitigliano is included in the list of most beautiful villages in Italy sponsored by the National Association of Italian Municipalities.

Pitigliano was already a place frequented and inhabited since Etruscan times, when here were founded many settlements dug in tuff and certificates from the late Bronze Age (XI-XII century BC). Even the place where today stands the village was located an Etruscan center, witnessed by the remains of the walls unearthed in the district of Capisotto and then disappeared between the late sixth and early fifth century BC.
The first mention of Pitigliano appears in a bubble sent by Pope Nicholas II in charge of the cathedral of Sovana in 1061, where it is already referred to as the place of jurisdiction of the family of the counts Aldobrandeschi. In 1293 Anastasia, daughter of Countess Margherita Aldobrandeschi, Orsini married Romano bringing a dowry the county of Sovana and the county seat was moved to its Pitigliano. Orsini ruled these lands for centuries, defending it from the continuous attempts of subjugation by Siena and Orvieto first, and then the Medicean Florence. It was only in 1574 that Nicholas IV Orsini gave the fortress to the Medici and in 1604 Pitigliano was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which was sold by Count Gian Antonio Orsini to pay its debts. Doctors, however, lost interest for the fate of the city, which soon fell into decline, and only in 1737, when the Grand Duchy passed to Lorena, Pitigliano experienced a slow economic recovery and cultural.
Today is a popular tourist destination thanks to the peculiarities of its historical center, which has allowed its inclusion in the list of the most beautiful towns in Italy ANCI.

Religious Architecture
Catholic parish churches
The Cathedral of Saints Peter and PaoloCattedrale of Saints Peter and Paul, Cathedral of Pitigliano, was built in the Middle Ages, rebuilt in the sixteenth century and profoundly altered in later periods. The late Baroque façade is flanked on the left by the bell tower that has plastered the bottom above which has maintained its original structure in tuff dating back to the medieval period. The interior of the cathedral, baroque nave with side chapels, houses various works of art ranging mainly between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Among the various remember two paintings of the "Life of St. Gregory" - Henry IV at Canossa and predestination of young Hildebrand - the Manciano artist Pietro Aldi. The parish of Saints Peter and Paul has about 820 inhabitants. [6]
Church of Santa Maria Assunta, located in Piazza Dante, outside the walls, dating back to the nineteenth century and is in Romanesque Revival style. The parish of Santa Maria Assunta has about 2,760 inhabitants. [7]
Sanctuary of the Madonna delle Grazie, built in the fourteenth century as a rural chapel, was transformed into a shrine to the Virgin in the sixteenth century and expanded in later periods when the site became home to a community of Franciscans. It was restored in 1962. The parish of Our Lady of Grace has about 610 inhabitants. [8]

Catholic churches minor
Church of Santa Maria and San Rocco, built in the twelfth century on a pre-existing pagan temple and restored in late-Renaissance, comes in an unusual trapezoidal classroom divided into three aisles where some traces of frescoes. The interior contains a large collection of paintings of the seventeenth century.
Oratory of the Holy Cross, located in the square Gregory VII, near the cathedral, it is a small religious building of the seventeenth century.
Church of St. Anthony, located on Via Zuccarelli, dates back to the thirteenth century, but has undergone substantial transformations that altered the appearance. Deconsecrated, it is now used for civil use.
Church of San Rocco, located between Via Vignoli and the alley San Rocco, dates from the fifteenth century, but after years of abandonment and neglect was deconsecrated and used as a private residence. Today on the façade has a niche with a statue.
St. Michael's Church, located in Via San Michele outside the walls, dating back to the Middle Ages, but has undergone renovations and expansions during the eighteenth century. Deconsecrated, it is now used for civil purposes.
Church of the Madonna del Fiore, built as a chapel during the Renaissance, is located on the namesake street outside the walls. In later centuries, the religious building was expanded, while keeping the original style elements discreetly from the sixteenth century.
Church and convent of San Francesco: built just outside Pitigliano, along the road to Manciano, date back to the Renaissance period and were designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. The church houses a fresco of the Madonna and Child from the early sixteenth century; The monastery is currently used as a rural dwelling, and still retains the valuable sixteenth century cloister.
Church of St. Paul of the Cross, built as a chapel in the rural hamlet of Casone, was completely transformed and expanded in the early twentieth century, with neo-Romanesque and neo-Gothic style elements and the addition of the bell tower and the sacristy.
Church of Santa Maria in Vinca, church of medieval origins, whose remains are found in the necropolis of Poggio Buco. [9]

Catholic chapels
Chapel of Saints Philip and James Apostles, built in the seventeenth century along the Vie Cave Gradone south of the old town, is a small rural chapel that has retained the stylistic elements typical of the period of construction.
Chapel of Pian di Morrano, small chapel of the eighteenth century, built in the homonymous farm, with respect to which is on the back.
Chapel of San Lorenzo, located in the eponymous farm near Pitigliano, is a church desecrated, which was built in the seventeenth century as a rural chapel.
Rock oratory, situated near the Porta di Sovana, it is a small cave used as a place of worship dating back to the fourth century, which opens in the cliff that runs along the road.

Jewish sacred structures
The Synagogue of Pitigliano, century synagogue, in which stand out the Aron on the back wall and the Tevà the center; on the walls are preserved inscriptions of Bible verses while above the women's gallery is reserved for women. Under the Jewish temple are the best places for the ritual bath, the impressive baked unleavened bread, the Kosher butcher, the winery kosher and dry cleaners.
Jewish Cemetery in Pitigliano, situated on the side of the stream Meleta that borders south the country, built in the second half of the sixteenth century when the Orsini conceded that land to their family doctor of Jewish religion for the burial of his wife. Near the Jewish cemetery extends the outdoor archeological museum Alberto Manzi.

Civil architecture
Palaces
Palazzo Orsini, an imposing fortified palace, built as a fortress by the Aldobrandeschi (XI-XII century) and then the county seat of the Orsini, was renovated consistently in the sixteenth century by Niccolo Orsini, the project of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. The current appearance is due to some renovations carried out by Lorraine between 1777 and 1840, although in recent times the Superintendency of artistic and cultural heritage of Siena and Grosseto imposed un'intonacatura outside of dubious quality. The complex houses in the Diocesan Museum of Palazzo Orsini, rich in works of art covering a period of time from the Middle Ages to modern times, and the archaeological museum, which houses various finds from the nearby archaeological sites.
Palazzo Comunale, the town hall, was built in neo-Renaissance style between 1934 and 1939 bore above the Teatro Salvini.
Salvini Theatre, built in 1823 by the Society of amateur dramatics Ravvivati, previously stood on the site of a barn, was renovated for the first time in 1870 and finally incorporated into the construction of the imposing Palazzo Comunale in the thirties of the twentieth century. The theater was renovated in the years 1971 and 1972 by engineer Edward Focacci.
Palazzo Sadun, Palazzo said of the Jews, it is an imposing building erected in the late nineteenth century in the main square next to the town hall.
Among the many palaces of Pitigliano are those held most interesting historically and architecturally: Bruscalupi Palace, Palazzo Incontri, Palazzo Lucci-Petruccioli, Palace of the District Court, Palazzo del Monte di Pieta, Courthouse, Palazzo Santelli, Vignoli Palace, the former hospital Pitigliano, the Hospital of the Poor, the bureau of the fortresses, the palace of Fiscaleria.

Fountains
Fountain of the Seven Spouts, feature fountain built in the mid-sixteenth century, closes the south side of the square of the Republic.
Twin fountains, pair of fountains, one located in the north and the other in the southern part of the Republic Square, dating from the early twentieth century.

Other civil
Medici aqueduct, built from the middle of the sixteenth century, was only completed in the next century when Pitigliano had already passed under the domination of the Medici.
Pozzo di Palazzo Orsini, characteristic well-cistern of the Renaissance, located in the inner courtyard of the Palazzo Orsini. It is characterized by fine bas-relief decorations depicting the lineage of the Counts of Pitigliano.

Military architecture

City walls
Walls of Pitigliano: the city wall was built by the Aldobrandeschi from the ninth century, although a primitive Etruscan fortification was already in the seventh century BC. The present appearance is due to a subsequent restructuring carried out by the Orsini during the Renaissance, designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Porta di Sovana, built in the thirteenth century by the Aldobrandeschi, near the stretch of Etruscan walls, to allow access to the village to those who came from Sovana, then capital of the county aldobrandesca through the Vie Cave.
Gate of the Citadel, built in the sixteenth century during the works for renovation and upgrading of the existing defense system. The door is a real gallery that crosses one of the bastions south-east, which allows access to the village from those coming from the east and south.


Castelli
Castel Aquila, ancient medieval fortress located in a wooded area near the river Fiora, of which there are the ruins.
Morrano Castle, situated in the locality Morranaccio, is an ancient castle of the IX century, identified with the name Murianum, possession of Aldobrandeschi and later defense of the city of Orvieto. Probably destroyed by the Sienese in the fifteenth century, it is today in the form of ruins.

Other
Monument to the progeny Ursinea, located to the right of the cathedral, is composed of a square base and a statue of a bear placed on a jar, with the coat of arms of the Orsini family. It was created in 1490.
Orsini Park, located on the hill Strozzoni, was built in the late sixteenth century on the model of the park of monsters of Bomarzo. It preserves some sculptures and the two monumental thrones, stone seats on the crest of the hill.

Archaeological sites
Necropolis Gradone, downstream of the village, over the bridge on Meleta, within the Vie Cave, is composed of chamber tombs to a period between the seventh and sixth centuries BC.
Necropolis of San Giovanni, situated not far from that of Gradone, at the Vie Cave, owes its name to the nearby bridge to eight arches built by the Grand Duke Leopold II of Lorraine in 1843. It dates from the mid-sixth century BC and consists of various chamber tombs dug into the tuff, as well as a number of tombs of the Hellenistic tipping (second century BC).
Necropolis of San Giuseppe, located along the road to Sovana, consists of a small group of chamber tombs dating from between the seventh and sixth centuries BC
Morranaccio, archaeological site of great interest, retains traces of a settlement from the Bronze Age attended the Etruscan and Roman are visible remains of old wells, tombs and rock caves. Here in the Middle Ages was located a castle, the ancient Murianum, today in the form of ruins.
Poggio Buco: at the area now known as Poggio Buco, was located a flourishing ancient Etruscan city, dependent on Vulci and rival with neighboring Pitigliano, inhabited since the late Bronze Age (XII century BC). The city disappeared in the early sixth century BC for unknown reasons and unknown is also the name that this town had. For years it was assumed that the area of ​​Poggio Buco was the site where once stood the lost city of Statonia, but then refuted hypothesis. They are part of the archaeological sites of Poggio Buco Caravone, Insuglietti, Le Sparne, Selva Fuse.

Among the many small archaeological sites in the territory it is to remember also those found in the town of Quran, Poggialti Vallelunga, Poggio Formica, Four Roads and Nova Source.

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